Who, What, Why: What is the method for reconstructing Richard III\'s face?

by:INDUSTRIAL-MAN     2019-09-12
The bones found in the Leicester parking lot have been confirmed by DNA tests as the bones of Richard III.
But what is the technique that scientists use to rebuild his face?
The only thing scientists need to do is the skull.
During the reign of the king, there was no portrait of the King.
However, scientists have built the Face Model of Richard III. How?
Richard died 1485, but his bones were well preserved.
Under the right conditions, this does not surprise the anthropologist.
Soil with low acidity and less bugs
For thousands of years, the bones have remained primitive.
The team of scientists at Dundee University for facial reconstruction has never been close to bones.
They received CT scans and skull photos via a computer program.
Not at this point.
Caroline Wilkinson, a professor of facial recognition at Dundee University, says people know if it\'s Richard III.
It is crucial to ignore any existing bias about Richard\'s looks.
The shape of the face must be based entirely on scanning.
It seems impossible to build someone\'s cheeks, nose and eyebrows from a bone.
But there are a lot of clues, she said. Like teeth.
\"The width of the mouth can be determined entirely by the position of the tooth.
The small bump in the outer orbit is the outer corner of the eye.
We can use these anatomical criteria to help us rebuild the face.
\"The nose was once one of the most difficult features to recreate because it was made of cartilage.
But recent research has found a formula that allows people to predict the appearance of a soft nose from the bones below, she said.
Even the shape of the eyebrows can be guessed, although the number of lines on someone\'s forehead will not be obvious.
Ears are the most difficult thing to correct.
What can be inferred from the skull is only whether the person has earlobe and where they sit on the side of the head.
About 70% of face surface errors should be less than 2mm, says Wilkinson.
One area they used to guess was the amount of meat on the 15 th century face.
\"We use the average depth of organization (from today)
But he may be a lot thinner or fatter than his current face.
\"It took a few days to create a digital head.
It was time to make one out of plastic using a rapid prototyping system --
Basically 3D printing output.
Created a fake eye, created a realistic skin texture, and added a wig that looks reasonable.
The work was done by artist Janice Aitken.
This stage of the process is guided by the portrait of the king, as science leaves a blank in Richard\'s eye color, skin tone and hair shape.
Over the past five years, technology has been improved thanks to advances in 3D printing and cheaper CT scans.
An exhibition in Dresden last year reappeared human faces millions of years ago.
The idea of facial sculpture was proposed by Soviet archaeologist Mikhail grasimov about 50 years ago, who created the terrible of the czar Ivan.
Crime investigators use facial reconstruction to help identify remains.
When all the other leads dry up, this may provide new impetus in the investigation and allow the families of the missing persons to rule in and out.
Martin evisson, director of the center for forensic science at Northumbria University, said that the goals that this technology can achieve are limited.
\"The facial reconstruction may be similar to the skull, but not exactly.
This is not a sure way.
Matthew Skinner, lecturer in anthropology at the University of London College, said: \"It may be dangerous to give lofty or prominent features to this topic . \".
He recalled the 10,000-year-old kenneswick. year-
Old things found in Washington state in the 1990 s
They did a facial reconstruction.
It looks like Patrick Stewart.
But Skinner says scientists studying Richard III seem cautious about sticking to science.
\"It looks like they are not biased, putting muscles and tissues on the skull with very modern techniques.
Wilkinson said she was surprised by the way it was rebuilt.
\"Having a face so similar to a portrait is a surprise.
Richard looks much younger than 32. year-
Older than the portrait.
Facial reconstruction looks very young, says Wilkinson.
\"Because we don\'t know where to put them, we can\'t increase any age.
The young result left a deep impression on the Richard III Association member, Filippa Lanley, who described him as \"handsome \".
\"It doesn\'t look like the face of a tyrant,\" she said . \".
Skinner said Dundee\'s team did a good job from a scientific point of view.
However, subjective factors always exist.
\"Facial expressions are an important part of how people look.
In the case of reconstruction, you have to choose one.
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