sustainability characterization for additive manufacturing.

by:INDUSTRIAL-MAN     2019-09-18
1.
From concept design, functional components to tools, additive manufacturing is increasingly used in the development of new products.
Additive Manufacturing (AM)
According to ASTMInternational, it is now called1]
Also known as rapid prototyping, additive manufacturing, free surface manufacturing, 3D printing and rapid manufacturing;
And use advanced technology to make parts by connecting and establishing material layersby-layer.
AM is an emerging technology that has shown prospects in applications such as biomedical implants in the aerospace and automotive industries [2-9].
AM\'s ability to construct parts directly from digital representation makes it a very good choice compared to traditional manufacturing (such as machining, injection molding, and molds)
Rapid Manufacturing of castings for highly customized parts.
Please note that while AM is naturally suitable for making products with complex geometric shapes in relatively small volumes, it shows that it can be convenient by making tools and molds used in mass manufacturing
It can also accelerate the production of selected parts by combining multiple parts into one.
The various raw materials used in AM currently include metals, plastics, ceramics or different forms of composites such as powders, wires or liquids.
Due to the different AM technologies and processes, the functional and geometric properties of the manufactured parts may change dramatically.
Planning decisions for selecting the right AM processes and materials for specific application requirements are rather complex [10].
Some researchers have documented in detail the opportunities of amprocess and technology, their application in different industries, and the impact of AM in production systems to achieve rapid manufacturing and mass production [1 [11-13].
However, research still needs to be carried out to give full play to the potential of the AM process and overcome the cost barriers of material performance data, identification and certification, especially the cost barriers of key components (
Aerospace parts or automotive parts).
AM process previously classified by different researchers [3, 14-16]
Now, the theASTM International Committee F42 has standardized the AM technology into class 7, as shown in the figure1 [1]. According to [17]
\"The long-awaited --
The long term impact is in highly customized manufacturing where AM can reduce costs
Effective than traditional methods.
According to an industry report by Wohlers Associates, sales of AM products and services could reach $3 by 2015.
By 2019, the world had more than $7 billion. 5billion. \" 2.
Additives and sustainable manufacturing are defined as the use process, the creation of manufactured products that minimize negative environmental impacts, save energy and natural resources, and are the safety of employees, communities and consumers, the economy is in good condition [18].
In assessing the sustainability of the AM process or any manufacturing process, the entire life cycle must be taken into account to derive the impact of sustainability.
The actual manufacturing process is just one of many environmental impacts associated with the product lifecycle.
With respect to the comparison of AM products with traditional manufactured products in terms of energy use, supply chain, pollution and other potential environmental impacts, there is not much hard data available at this time [19].
Manufacturing accounts for about 1-third ofU. S.
Energy consumption]20, 21].
Reduce energy consumption and related energy costs by improving energy efficiency. S.
It also helps to protect our environment.
Therefore, energy efficiency and the cost and availability of energy have a significant impact on the competitive and economic health of the United States. S. manufacturers [18].
Table 1 shows some of the key AM advantages associated with sustainable manufacturing. 3.
A literature review of environmental impact by AM bouurell and others. [22]
With the latest development in the field of AM technology, a historical point of view is put forward.
They reported further on the United States. S.
National Roadmap Workshop to identify research needs and possibilities for AM over the next 10 years15 years.
This study documented a number of AM research proposals, including some in energy and sustainable applications.
Specific research proposals include: Designing energy system components using AMcapabilities;
Carry out maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO)
As a potential AM application;
Develop fair indicators to measure the sustainability of AM processes and products;
And determine the sustainable engineering materials of AM process.
Recently, Workshop on Roadmap for metal measurement science
Basic additive manufacturing sponsored by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
Challenges hindering widespread adoption were explored, especially in the field of measurement science and normalization [23].
With regard to sustainability, the roadmap emphasizes that AM can significantly reduce waste in manufacturing and reduce energy used in raw material production and processing steps.
By using AM for repair and remanufacture, not only can material waste and the number of landfill sites be reduced, but also energy and material consumption in the manufacturing process will be reduced due to the utilization of existing components.
The roadmap also identifies the lack of measurement criteria for total energy input and loss of AM. Baumers et al. [24]
The electricity consumption of the two main polymer laser sintering platforms was compared and evaluated (1)
: Sinterstation HiQ HS of 3D system and EOSINTP 390 of EOS GmbH.
In the power monitoring experiments conducted on both platforms, the energy input for the construction of two prosthetic components was recorded.
This paper proposes energy use related to work, time-
Dependency, geometry-
Dependency, Z-height-
Energy consumption value dependent.
In another paper25]
The authors outline the power consumption of several major AM technical variants, reporting specific energy consumption during the production of dedicated test components. Diegel et al. [26]
From the perspective of sustainable design, this paper introduces how various aspects of AM have become useful tools to achieve sustainable design of consumer goods.
The relationship between design quality and sustainability is emphasized.
Some of the main design considerations to keep in mind when designing for AMinclude include: closed gaps, surface finish, strength and flexibility, and machine and material costs. Scott et al. [10]
The current situation of AM industry is introduced, especially the technical challenges and emerging R & D in this field.
Technical challenges include material representation, material development, process control, process understanding and modeling, machine identification, machine modularity, and design tools and software.
With regard to environmental impacts, the report highlights the need for fair indicators to measure environmental impacts and sustainability of the AM process. Hao et al. [27]
By optimizing the internal lightweight structure, the research activities of Sustainable Product Design are shown;
Improve process efficiency by optimizing AM process parameters
Reduce energy consumption through in-
Reaction of in situ materials;
Sustainable production of personalized chocolate.
Faulkner et al. [28]
A method for preparing a sustainable value flow chart is proposed, which includes various indicators to evaluate not only the economic performance of the production line, but also the environmental and social sustainability performance of the production line.
Select metrics to evaluate process water consumption, raw material usage, energy consumption, potential hazards associated with the working environment, and physical work performed by employees.
[Ellis and Dudley]29]
It is recommended to make more comprehensive and sustainable decisions after making a broader metricsin remediation plan decision.
Reducing the inherent consumption of energy, raw materials and other consumables is the most important opportunity to implement more sustainable remedial actions.
The traditional remediation technology assessment process does not assess greenhouse gas emissions, natural resource consumption, energy use, worker safety and/or local and regional impacts.
Sustainability indicators and composite indices are increasingly recognized as useful tools for decision-making and public exchange of information on national and corporate performance in areas such as environment, economic, social or technological improvement. Singh et al. [30]
Sustainable Development Indicators simplify, quantify, analyze and convey complex information by presenting visual phenomena and general trends. Kinderyte [31]
A method for evaluating the sustainability of printing enterprises is proposed.
The method consists of qualitative and quantitative parts and comprehensive indices.
The qualitative and quantitative parts are aggregated into an improved sustainability index.
The main areas for printing enterprises to improve are: the use of more ecological paper, paint and other resources;
Reduce volatile organic compounds and use renewable energy sources.
Mr. Sreenivasan and others. [32]
The overall energy evaluation of selective laser sintering (SLS)
Polymer Using ecoindicators.
They also introduced the electrolytic deposition of porous SLS non-polymer premix with the aim of reducing the energy consumption of non-polymer SLS
Polymer materials.
Hille and Lipson [33]
A free-form surface manufacturing system is demonstrated, which is printed using fully reusable physical voxels and minimal recycling.
This new paradigm of digitalization (discrete)
Substances enable any amount of material to be printed together in any configuration.
This research provides an opportunity for flexible desktop manufacturing processes
Fully recyclable and re-utilized physical objects
Withminanimal infrastructure is available.
Noprat and [34]
Research the benefits of using AM technology through results-oriented productsService System (PSS)
The methodology of the scale model suite industry, thereby quantifying raw materials and energy consumption.
The results show that AM has higher efficiency in the use of raw materials, but it has higher energy consumption compared with more traditional manufacturing technology.
Le Bourhis and others. [35]
A new approach is proposed in all of the flowsconsumed (
Materials, fluids, electricity)
Considered in environmental impact assessment.
This method combines the global view required for a sustainable approach with an accurate evaluation of low consumption in the machine.
The developed method is based on the traffic consumption prediction model defined from the manufacturing path and computer-aided design (CAD)
Model of the part to be produced. Diegel et al. [26]
Looking at all aspects of AM from a sustainable design perspective can be a useful tool for achieving sustainable design of consumer goods.
With the development of AM technology, the emergence of more and more new materials, and the further development of a variety of materials technology, the field of product design has undergone tremendous changes.
Bertling et al. [36]
Presents sustainability aspects of two different development directions in direct digital manufacturing: AM and fablabmotion\'s resettlement of established processes in the industry as an example of a consumer paradigm shiftproducer-relationship.
In general, this paper believes that in order to decisively reduce the ecological footprint of consumption, the whole production and consumption system needs to be innovated.
The study also shows that participation, cooperation and self-
Manufacturing has increased everyone\'s responsibility, which should be an excellent foundation for sustainable consumers --producer-relationship.
Isanaka and [37]
Summarized the role of AM technology to help build the network
The manufacturing environment is realized by printing or embedding sensors and actuators in the appropriate position.
Such a working environment is critical for continuous quality control and timely and predictive maintenance of manufacturing equipment.
Brackett et al. [38]
The problems and opportunities of the topology optimization method forAM application are outlined.
This paper discusses the analytical issues required to deal with geometric complexity in the post-optimization phase, such as the maximum geometric resolution of fine features, manufacturing constraints, and workflow modifications.
The manufacturing issues discussed include the potential to achieve an intermediate density region in the case of solid homophobic materials with penalties (SIMP)
Methods, the use of small-scale lattice structures, the use of multiple material processing, and the inclusion of support structure requirements in manufacturing constraints.
Material and material-specific process development is a key driver for achieving energy efficiency and reducing environmental footprint. Morrow et al. [39]
Three case studies were investigated to demonstrate the extent of direct metal deposition (DMD)-
Compared with the traditional manufacturing methods, the manufacturing based on molds and molds can currently reduce environmental emissions and energy consumption. Laser-
Tool-based remanufacture seems to reduce costs and environmental impacts at the same time, especially as the size of the tool increases. Huang et al. [40]
The social impact of additional manufacturing is introduced from a technical point of view.
Their paper emphasizes additive manufacturing in the following areas: customized health care products to improve the health and quality of life of the population, reduce the environmental impact on manufacturing sustainability, simplify the supply chain, and improve demand satisfaction
They stressed that further research is needed in the field of life cycle energy consumption assessment and potential occupational hazard assessment for additive manufacturing. Bonnard et al. [41]
Recommended steps-
NC concept with high
Level information such as simulation data
Materials and internal structures to integrate the AM process in a complete step
NC Digital chain meeting iso tc 184/SC 1 standard.
The purpose of the proposed numerical chain is to define global process control from the process knowledge obtained in experiments, measurements, and simulations.
Sustainability may be a goal in this global process control. 4.
Recently, both industry and academia have widely assumed the sustainable benefits of AM.
However, in order to promote the wide application of this technology, we need to obtain scientific data through established measurement methods. 42].
It is reported that the performance evaluation of AMprocesses (example: [43-45]).
Appropriate benchmark components are designed for the performance evaluation of AM systems and processes, and useful decision support data are provided.
Several benchmarking studies have been carried out to determine the dimensional accuracy and surface quality levels that can be achieved by the current AM process.
In addition to workmanship and materials, there may be other factors, such as architectural style and specific process parameters, which may affect the accuracy and finish of the part.
To achieve sustainable production, scientific methods of measurement need to be developed and standardized for AM to assess and evaluate the impact of sustainability. 4.
1 Sustainability representation methods today, manufacturing is forced to create and deliver high-quality products while reducing environmental impact [46].
Transforming the environmental practices of manufacturing companies from the basis of human experience to science
Practice-based can be realized through science
Based on the features of sustainable development [47].
This feature will include information on various performance indicators, which is critical to determining the sustainability of the unit manufacturing process (UMP).
UMPs is a separate step to convert raw materials into finished products by adding energy [48].
Selective laser sintering, stereo exposure, and fuzzy processing modeling are examples of UMPs suitable for the ofAM category.
Figure 2 shows a summary of a proposed sustainability description guide that provides a measurement framework for improving the sustainability of manufacturing processes and continuously comparing different manufacturing processes to achieve sustainability.
The guide has not yet been officially developed and is currently an active work project in ASTM e60.
13 sub-committee on sustainability features of manufacturing processes [49].
Overall, the proposed guidelines for sustainability features include four main steps.
The first step involves understanding process physics and collecting process-related data.
The second step involves the actual sustainability description. 47].
The first part is to define key performance metrics and their computable metrics.
Performance indicators can be divided into two categories: input indicators and output indicators.
Examples of input indicators include water use, energy use, and material use.
Examples of output indicators include products, solid waste, liquid waste and air emissions [50].
The second part of the approach includes determining the analysis that can be used to calculate UMP sustainability and incorporating the analysis into the information model.
The third part involves the application manufacturing process.
Specific data sets to provide evidence supporting the information model and support the execution of computable metrics.
This will generate lifecycle inventory (LCI)
Process-specific data.
The third step of the sustainability description Guide may include the comparison of the resulting sustainability-related data with other manufacturing processes or general industry averages.
Based on the results of step 3, an improved action plan was developed in step 4.
The authors suggest that the AM process must be characterized by sustainability in order to truly understand and understand the impact of the environment, not just assumptions and suggestions based on statistical data.
When characterizing sustainability, all aspects of the entire am process from raw material preparation to pre-processing
Processing, actual processing, post-processing
A careful inspection of the processing of the final part must be carried out and appropriate measurement methods must be determined to consider sustainability.
Comparison with established processes, such as powder metallurgy, is considered sustainable because it can use renewable materials [51]
Implementation will be required in order to better understand the sustainability aspect.
A method of theoretically simulating forAM sustainability needs to be studied.
Previous studies on the sustainability of theoretical models for other manufacturing processes based on energy use may be useful [52, 53].
As a disruptive technology, using AM in terminal production can achieve potential benefits
Available and key parts.
More importantly, AM has the potential to improve the economic, environmental and social sustainability of manufacturing.
AM is particularly suitable for industries where mass customization, lightweight parts and shortening supply chains are economically valuable, especially in areas such as medical, dental, automotive and aerospace [54]. 5.
In order to understand and characterize the sustainability of the AM process, there is still a research gap to be explored. Science-
Sustainability-based descriptions need to be developed for different AM technologies and processes.
Sustainability indicators and corresponding measurement science need to be developed in conjunction with standard organizations and other standard development efforts.
In addition to this, the general challenges and research of AM to achieve wider application remain relevant and apply to the promotion of sustainable development [55, 56].
These challenges include: Process control with better feedback control systems and indicators to improve the accuracy and reliability of the manufacturing process;
Improve the surface finish of the product;
Verification and demonstration of component structure integrity;
Extensive testing, demonstration and data collection for decision support;
Energy efficient AM system;
Efficient process for manufacturing metal powder and maintaining shelf life; efficientpost-processing;
Non-toxic and reusable materials;
Materials and more
Strategy of material recycling and reuse;
Integration of existing waste logistics;
Alternative materials;
Carbon mapping tools;
Improve the support structure generation strategy with less waste;
Design Optimization and simulation tools to minimize material and process efficiency; closed-
Solution;
Development of distributed supply chain model
Reverse logistics and its application model
Specific solutions. 6.
The relevant ASTM standards organization ASTM International has developed standards related to sustainable manufacturing and AM. 6.
To facilitate the development and use of sustainable manufacturing processes, ASTM International Council on Sustainable Manufacturing E60 has created a new subcommittee E60.
About Sustainable Manufacturing57,58].
Sub-Committee e60.
13 work projects for the four criteria are currently being implemented, namely: WK35702, new guidelines for assessment of environmental aspects of sustainability in manufacturing processes;
WK35703, new term for standard terms for sustainable manufacturing;
WK35705, a new guide to the description of sustainability of manufacturing processes;
WK38312, new classification of waste generated by manufacturing facilities and related claims.
NIST plays a leading role in the e60.
Efforts of the subcommittee. 6.
2 astm am technical standards are designed to promote understanding of the industry, help stimulate research, and encourage the implementation of technology.
The standard is developed by ASTMCommittee F42, defines terms, measures the performance of different production processes, ensures the quality of the final product, and specifies procedures for calibration of AM machines.
ASTM f42 Technical Subcommittee is working to develop standards for materials and processes, terminology, design and data formats, and test methods [1]59].
NIST actively leads some of the work of the ASTM F42 subcommittee.
Recently, ISO and ASTM International signed an agreement to strengthen cooperation in the development of international standards for AM [60]. 7.
Conclusion additive manufacturing is a promising way to make complex shapes, custom parts, or small batch products where it is a waste of time to create amold or use the processing process.
In order to accelerate the maturity of key components and mass production of AM technology, more efforts need to be made.
The sustainability aspect of OfAM may provide an advantage for the industry to embrace technology.
But today there is a lack of measurement science that truly understands sustainability.
Therefore, in this paper, we first introduce the relevant literature on the environmental impact of AM.
Next, we present an outline of a sustainable development feature Guide as a reference for the community to measure the sustainable development AM process.
The guide has not yet been formally developed and is currently an active work item in ASTM e60. 13 committee.
Finally, we present the research perspective and description of relevant standard organizations.
Acceptance: published on August 12, 2014: 8 on September 22, 2014. References [1]
ASTM F2792, standard terminology for additive manufacturing technology, ASTM, 2014. [2]N. Hopkinson, R. Hague, and P.
Dickens, rapid manufacturing: the Industrial Revolution in the digital age.
John Willie, father and son Company, 2006. [3]I. Gibson, D. W. Rosen, and B.
Additive manufacturing technology. Springer, 2010. [4]F. P. Melchels, M. A. Domingos, T. J. Klein, J. Malda, P. J. Bartolo, and D. W.
Additive manufacturing of tissues and organs, Prog. Polym. Sci. , vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 1079-1104, 2012. [5]L. Murr, S. Gaytan, F. Medina, H. Lopez, E. Martinez, B. Machado, D. Hernandez, L. Martinez, M. Lopez, and R. Wicker,Next-
The biomedical implants are generated using compound, cell and functional grid arrays, and the additive manufacturing of Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. , vol. 368, no. 1917, pp. 1999-2032, 2010. [6]M. Salmi, J. Tuomi, K. -S. Paloheimo, R. Bjorkstrand, M. Paloheimo, J. Salo, R. Kontio, K.
Mesimaki and. A.
Makitie, patient.
Rapid prototyping of specific reconstruction through 3D modeling and DMLS replenishment manufacturing. J. , vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 209-214, 2012. [7]O. Ivanova, C.
Williams and T.
Campbell Additivemanufacturing (AM)
And nanotechnology: Promise and challenge, rapid prototyping. J. , vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 353-364, 2013. [8]T.
Wohlers represents the state of additive manufacturing in the industry. , 2010. [9]T.
Wohlers, Wohlers Report 2013: Status of additive manufacturing and 3d Printing Industry: Annual Global progress report. 2013. [10]J. Scott, N. Gupta, C. Weber, S. Newsome, T. Wohlers, and T.
Additive manufacturing: Status and opportunity, Sci. Technol. Policy Inst. , pp. 1-29, 2012. [11]M.
Aliakbari, additive manufacturing: state-of-the-
Art, ability and sample application for Cost Analysis, 2012. [12]I. D.
Harris, additive manufacturing: Transformation of advanced manufacturing technology
Additive manufacturing represents a new model that offers a range of opportunities for design, functionality, and cost. Mater. Process. , vol. 170, no. 5, p. 25,2012. [13]K. V. Wong and A.
Hernandez, review additivemanufacturing, ISRN Mech. Eng. , vol. 2012, 2012. [14]K.
Manufacturing Technical Support (Hartke)MATES),AFRL-RX-WP-TR-2011-4322, Aug. 2011. [15]N.
Manufacturing of additives: Technology and Application, 2010. [16]G. N. Levy, R.
Sinder and J. -P.
Kruth, fast manufacturing and fast tools with layered manufacturing (LM)
CIRP Ann, technology, technology status and future prospects. -Manuf. Technol. , vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 589-609, 2003. [17]
Document, Overview: US additive manufacturingS.
Ministry of Commerce, 2012. [18]
How does Commerce define sustainable manufacturing?
Administration of international tradeS.
Ministry of Commerce, 2014. [19]M.
Grunbaum, 3D printed sustainability scorecard, April. 2012. [20]
Manufacturing Research Institute, manufacturing facts, Manufacturing Research Institute, 2012. [21]ORNL, U. S.
ORNL/TM-analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions manufactured by Columbia Energy, Maryland2012/504, Nov. 2012. [22]D. Bourell, J. Beaman, M. C. Leu, and D.
Rosen, brief history of additive manufacturing and 2009 roadmap for additive manufacturing: Review and Outlook, presented in the US
Rapid technical workshop in Turkey in 2009. [23]
Science Roadmap for metal measurement
Addivemanufacturing, based at the National Institute of Standards and Technology of the United StatesS.
Department of Commerce, Columbia Energy Corporation, Maryland, Seminar summary report, May 2013. [24]M. Baumers, C. Tuck, D. Bourell, R.
And R.
Hague, sustainability of additive manufacturing: Measuring energy consumption during laser sinteringInst. Mech. Eng. PartB, J. Eng. Manuf. , vol. 225, no. 12, pp. 22282239, 2011. [25]M. Baumers, C. Tuck, R. Wildman, I.
Ashcroft and R.
Energy input from additive manufacturing in The Hague: Is capacity utilization important? , EOS, vol. 1000, p. 270, 2011. [26]O. Diegel, S. Singamneni, S. Reay, and A.
Tools for Sustainable Product Design: additive manufacturing, J. Sustain. Dev. ,vol. 3, no. 3, p. p68, 2010. [27]L. Hao, D. Raymond, G. Strano, and S.
Increase the sustainability of additive manufacturing by 2010. [28]W. Faulkner, W. Templeton, D. Gullett, and F.
Badurdeen, visualize the sustainability performance of a manufacturing system using a sustainable value flow diagram (Sus-VSM)
Published at 2012 International Conference on Industrial Engineering and operation management.
Turkey, Turkey, page 2012. 815-824. [29]D. E. Ellis and P. W.
White paper on sustainable remediation-Dudley-
Integrate sustainable principles, practices and indicators into the project for remediation. J. , vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 5-114, 2009. [30]R. K. Singh, H. Murty, S. Gupta, and A.
Overview of sustainability assessment methodology, Ecol. Indic. , vol. 9, no. 2,pp. 189-212, 2009. [31]L.
Kindergarten, sustainability assessment of enterprises in the printing industry, environment. Res. Eng. Manag. , vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 5964,2011. [32]R. Sreenivasan, A. Goel, and D.
The sustainable development of laser
Based on additive manufacturing, Phys. Procedia, vol. 5, pp. 81-90, 2010. [33]J. D. Hiller and H.
More than fully recyclable
Material printing, presented in a solid free surface manufacturing procedure on page 2009. 98-106. [34]N. Nopparat and B.
Kianian, resource consumption of additional manufacturing technology, Blekinge Institute of Technology, paper, 2012. [35]F. Le Bourhis, O. Kerbrat, J. -Y. Hascoet, and P.
Mognol, sustainable manufacturing: Assessment and modeling of environmental impacts in additive manufacturing, IntJ. Adv. Manuf. Technol. , vol. 69, no. 9-12, pp. 1927-1939, 2013. [36]J. Bertling, J. Blomer, M.
Rechberger and S. Schreiner,DDM-
How about sustainable production? , Young, vol. 35, no. 32,p. 30. [37]P. Isanaka and F.
Liou is the application of additional manufacturing technology in networked manufacturing systems, published at the International Symposium on solid free forming manufacturing on page 2012. 8-10. [38]D. Brackett, I.
Ashcroft and R.
Hague, topology optimization for additive manufacturing, published at 24 thSolid free surface manufacturing workshop (sFf\' 11), 2011, pp. 6-8. [39]W. Morrow, H. Qi, I. Kim, J.
Mazumder and S.
Skerlos, environmental aspects of laser
J. tools and manufacturing based and traditionalClean. Prod. , vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 932-943, 2007. [40]S. H. Huang, P. Liu, A.
Mokasdar, L.
Hou, additive manufacturing and its social impact: a literature reviewJ. Adv. Manuf. Technol. , vol. 67, no. 5-8, pp. 1191-1203, 2013. [41]R. Bonnard, P. Mognol, and J. -Y.
Hascoet, a new type of digital chain for additive manufacturing processes, virtual physics. Prototyp. , vol. 5,no. 2, pp. 75-88, 2010. [42]P.
Reeves, sustainable production in 21 st century additive manufacturing, economy St Co. , Ltd. , white paper, 2012. [43]R. Ippolito, L. Iuliano, and A.
Gatto, CIRP Ann, benchmark testing of rapid prototyping techniques in terms of dimensional accuracy and surface finish. -Manuf. Technol. , vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 157-160, 1995. [44]M. Mahesh, Y. Wong, J. Fuh, and H.
Benchmark Loh for RP system and process comparison evaluation, rapid prototyping. J. ,vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 123-135, 2004. [45]S. Moylan, J. Slotwinski, A. Cooke, K. Jurrens, and M. A.
Donmez, proposal for standardized test artifacts for addition manufacturing machines and processes, published at 2012 Annual International Symposium on the manufacture of solid free surfaces, P. 20126-8. [46]
Environmental Protection Bureau, lean production and environment, 2003. [47]M. Mani, J. Madan, J. H. Lee, K. Lyons, and S.
Gupta presented the sustainability of manufacturing performance evaluation at ASME 2012 International Design Engineering Technical Conference and Engineering Conference, P. 2012. 1153-1162. [48]
NRC, unit manufacturing process: problems and opportunities in research.
Press of the National Academy of Sciences, 1995. [49]
ASTM WK35705, new guide for Sustainability representation of manufacturing processes, ASTM, standard, 2014. [50]
OCED, OCED, 2014[51]J. R.
Powder metallurgy-Dell-
Inner sustainableJ. Powder Metall. , vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 27-31, 2011. [52]J. Madan, M. Mani, and K. W.
Lyon presented the energy consumption features of the injection molding process at the ASME 2013 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference, which was held in conjunction with 41 North American manufacturing Research Conference (2013, pp. V002T04A015-V002T04A015. [53]M. F. Watkins, M. Mani, K. W. Lyons, and S.
Die, Sustainability representation of Die casting process, presented Computer and Information at ASME 2013 International Design Engineering Technical Conference and Engineering Conference, P. 2013V02AT02A006-V02AT02A006. [54]G. White and D.
Lynskey, economic analysis of additional production of final products: industrial methods, 2013. [55]
Department of Energy, additive manufacturing: pursuing commitment, energy efficiency and renewable energy, Department of Energy/EE0776, August. 2012. [56]P.
April, Reeves, additional attractions. 2011. [57]ASTM E60.
13. subcommittee e60.
13 on sustainable manufacturing, 2014 per cent. [58]
ASTM, standard for sustainable manufacturing, 2012. [59]
ASTM, technical standard for additive manufacturing, 2014. [60]
ISO, sustainable development, international organization for standardized, International Organization for standardized ISSN 22261095, Jan. 2012. Mahesh Mani (1,2), Kevin W. Lyons (1), and S. K. Gupta (2)(1)
Institute of National Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (2)
University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 mahesh. mani@nist. gov kevin. lyons@nist. gov (1)
To facilitate understanding, certain commercial equipment, instruments or materials are identified in this paper.
This identification does not mean the recommendation or recognition of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, nor does it mean that the materials or equipment identified must be the best material or equipment provided for this purpose.
Mahesh Mani is an assistant research scientist at the University of Maryland College Park and a guest researcher in the system integration department of NIST Engineering Laboratory.
His research interests include intelligent manufacturing and rapid response Manufacturing, additive manufacturing, distributed and collaborative manufacturing. Kevin W.
Lyon is the leader of the Life Cycle Engineering team in the system integration division of NIST Engineering Laboratory.
His research interests include sustainable manufacturing, nano-manufacturing, design, process modeling, assembly, virtual assembly and additive manufacturing technologies. Satyandra K.
Gupta is a professor at the Institute of Mechanical Engineering and Systems, University of Maryland.
His research interests are in the field of automation.
He is particularly interested in automation problems in computer-aided design, manufacturing automation, and robotics.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology is an institution in the United States. S.
Ministry of Commerce.
Custom message
Chat Online 编辑模式下无法使用
Chat Online inputting...