The types and scope of materials that can be used in plastic-assisted manufacturing can help determine how this emerging technology group-
Usually referred to as 3D printing
Industry is in use.
For a long time, additive manufacturing technology has been used in so-
Known as a rapid prototype
, material development has previously focused on manufacturing \"functional prototypes\" with production part properties \".
But the frontier of innovation today is to increase the production of \"real\"world\" parts.
Cost of attractions-
Short term effective production--
Even a single part-
There is no tool, no delivery time for a few hours, and no potential to make complex shapes that cannot be produced (
No assembly steps)
Through any other process.
The question of the processor of interest is what kind of \"real\"
The \"world\" material can be used for real additional manufacturing.
Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)
And a model of molten deposition (FDM)
At present, it is the only process used for additive manufacturing in production.
In general, these technologies make sense where the production volume is low and the product value is high.
Current and Potential applications range from aerospace interior components to automotive parts, medical implants, custom consumer goods and sporting goods.
The terms \"additive manufacturing\" and \"3D printing\" are often used interchanged, but the former is increasingly used by industry as a more accurate description.
Generally, the price of a 3D printer is usually between $10,000 and $50,000, with a typical built-in envelope of 10x10.
Can use a few generic-
Material for use, typical photopolymer, with medium-
Range of mechanical and thermal properties.
So far, the 3D printer has developed to the best form. and-
Install the prototype and some lights
Work Function Test of part.
In contrast, the industrial 3D production system usually starts at $50,000, and for higher products, the starting price may exceed $500,000. High end SLS system.
They usually have a building envelope greater than 1x1 ft and a building envelope of at least 8 to 10 materials
Mechanical and thermal performance grades that can be customized for specific end-use.
These materials include highly engineered thermoplastic materials such as peeps and PEI, including grades of fiberglass and recent carbon fiber enhancements.
These materials are ideal for functional testing and on-site testing, product testing, and manufacturing tools and finished products.
Recently, new materials have emerged in these processes, and some progress has been made in 3D printing.
New material 3D process for SLS, provided by 3D system, Rock Hill, S. C. (3dsys-tems. com)
German Los Limited (U. S.
Office of Mich Novi. ; eos. info)
, By far, the most popular thing is to make real
According to Terry Wells of Fort Collins, Colorado, plastic parts of the world. (
Wohlersassociates. com), a well-
Well-known experts and consultants in this field.
SLS allow the construction of structures with powder thermoplastic plastics that are integrated (sintered)
By moving the beam.
SLS are touted for the quality, repeatability and mechanical strength of the components it produces.
Wohlers pointed out that most additive manufacturing of plastic parts is in the aerospace field, for example, Boeing has made dozens of parts for 10 different aircraft
Air flow pipes, brackets, clips and electric boxes in the structural environment.
Another use of SLS is in car sports, such as small motorcycles.
Custom volume run
Replace fashionable parts such as the anemometer housing, housing and fa ring for metal or injection plastic.
Not high though-
Luxury sports are considering a lot of car work including SLS and fdmprocess-
Car companies like emaserati of I and La mborgh.
\"SLS produce solid parts and are a relatively fast process.
But no matter which industry you serve, the best thing about it is that you are doing a major redesign that will lead to the integration of the parts, just like the parts made by Boeing.
Nylon 12 and 11 have been the base material for most SLS powders for many years.
Both the 3D system and EOS offer a range of nylon including flame-
Flame retardant, impact-
Glass, resistantAluminum filling
Filling and carbon-fiber grades.
EOS also provides
More than a year ago, Rodia of Solvey engineering plastics (U. S.
Office in Alpha Retta, Georgia. ; so/vayp/astics. com)
Launch the first batch of nylon 6 powder developed for SLS.
Sinterline nylon 6 powder is reported to produce SLS parts with heat resistance and stiffness similar to injection molded nylon 6.
Company solutions D/E2R in France specializing in engineering and rapid development-
Prototype technologies for entertainment vehicles and aerospace applications have used Sinterline to make things like air-
Intake pipe and brake-fluid tanks.
According to Herman Hanning, technical manager of LSS laser sintering Services Ltd, the excellent surface treatment offered by Sinterline is expected to help expand the range of slspart
He expects the material to be used soon for automotive and electronic prototyping as well as for short
Run the application.
EOS recently added two new materials to the roster.
One is PA 2241, flame-
Flame retardant Nylon 12 for processing on its Eosint P system.
This material is \"complementary\", which means that the remaining powder after the sintering part can be used for another part. \"Re-
Although EOS recommends the use of at least 60% of fresh powder, \"complete\" significantly reduces manufacturing costs.
The new grade provides higher flame resistance than the previous grade of EOS (PA 2210 FR)
Mechanical properties are also improved, including the tensile strength of 49 MPa (7107 psi)
Broken elongation 15%.
It is aimed at the internal components of the aircraft, such as ventilation ducts and air outlets.
Another new EOS grade is PEBA 2301, a soft co-polyester TPE used on certain Eosint P and Formiga P systems.
It has a break elongation of 200% and good rebound elasticity and fatigue resistance
Range 40 to 194 F.
Target applications including winter
Sports accessories such as impact protectors; consumer-goodshousings;
Car accessories such as handles and corners/edges or doors-Lock Assembly;
Grip of medical devices;
And flexible cable holder and sheath.
Oxford Performance Materials (OPM)
Located in southern Windsor, Connecticut. (oxfordpm. com)
, Made its own Oxpekk PEKK powder (Ether Ketone-ketone)
Engineering resin suitable for equipment.
PEKK shares some of the features of a better understanding of Peeps, including high mechanical strength, heat resistance, and biocompatibility.
However, opm ceo Scott DeFelice said that the PEKK molecule provides more room for adjustment for the production of customized materials for different biomedical applications.
In fact, OPM recently received an FDA message about its PEKK--
A special skull device for patients with OsteoFab, the massactable implant is designed to restore the skull gap caused by trauma or disease.
The Ofdm material advances the ofdm process marked by Stratasys, an Eden Prairie, Minnesota. (stratasys. com);
And its variant, which is called the manufacture of miscellaneous wires (FFF)
Standard and engineering-
Grade thermoplastic filament for production of functional components.
The technology is heated to asemi by heating fine thermoplastic wire-
Liquid state and extrusion along computer
Like all other 3D printers, except SLS, FDM, and FFF, they all use build materials and sometimes wax-like or gel-
Like the supporting material, it is like a scaffold with complex shapes.
Once the part is fully built, the bracket is either broken or dissolved in detergent and water.
The limited differential material range of Stratasy includes several types of dive wires, including opaque and translation grades of various colors, as well as impact-
Heat, and biocompa. tiblegrades.
Filament and flame for PC/ABS, PC, sterilized PC and pps-retardant, low-smoke, low-toxicity PEI (
Ultem9085 based on Sabic Innovative Plastics, Pittsburgh, Volkswagen. ; sabic-ip. com).
At the end of last year, Stratasys launched a tough, unfilled ofdm nylon 12, the first nylon specifically designed for its Fortus 3D FDM equipment system, designed to meet the need to repeat quickly
Fatigue resistance, chemical corrosion resistance, high impact strength or pressure-fit inserts.
Stratasys said that compared to nylon parts made using other additive manufacturing techniques, the new FDM nylon 12 makes tougher, more flexible, unfilled nylon parts.
The self-emission of the new material at break is 100% higher than that of other nylon 12 3D printing materials.
The fatigue resistance index is higher and the impact strength is increased by three times (
Izod gap and no gap)
It is much lower than the moisture absorption rate of nylon 6, 66 and 610, so it can be used in other places where nylon is insufficient.
The material adopts a new soluble support material SR110, which has been optimized for fdm nylon 12 and is easy to wash off.
Fred Fisher, engineering manager at Stratasys, said, \"The new nylon 12 represents a breakthrough for us, because in the case of amorphous and semi-amorphous, ofdm used to be the best
We are able to make the new nylon 12 compatible with FDM technology, so now we see the other half
The crystalline plastic that customers have been looking for years, such as peeking, PP and other nylon, looks more viable.
We hope to make material for significant improvement . . . . . . Market focus on high
High performance, high
This will solve the value application of a large part of the injection molding
\"For this reason, Stratasys has begun to work with the industry (See sidebar p. 46).
Fisher said Stratasys chose to develop nylon 12 first because of its use in auto parts and aerospace fixtures, tools and fixtures.
He also saw nylon 12 being used as functional prototypes for consumer goods such as drill bits and other building tools.
M. innetonka of Minn(natureworksllc. corn)
3 Dom Silk Co. , Ltd. of andirector land.
Recently announced their collaboration to support 3D printing by combining nature
The ingeo PLA resin of the staff is made of 3 dom filament manufacturing process for FDM equipment.
3dom\'s team has more than ten years of technical experience in the Ingeo PLA and will provide the Ingeo logo for its entire monofilament family.
Over the past year, 3Dom has developed a process to turn Ingeo into a continuous high yield
Quality filament of all primary colors, there are more colors on the road.
3Dom can customize Ingeo monofilament properties such as stiffness, toughness and dimensional stability.
Dan Sawyer, global leader in new business development at Natureworks, said some companies are starting to use Ingeo PLAfilament for small businesses
The scale of the additive was manufactured but was not made public at this early stage.
Sawyer added, \"through some of the expected collaborative efforts, we are confident that we can facilitate the development of the Ingeo solutions that can address a wider range of cross-cutting issues
From trinkets and toys to parts that make things. \" Boston-
To start MarkForged (markforged. com)
Founded by Greg Mark, an aerospace engineer, recently announced the development of the world\'s first 3D carbon printerFiber Composite
It\'s basically a limited company.
Type machine that can print acarbon
Fiber reinforced PLA/nylon mixed fiber.
Compact marking a machine with a structure size of 22. 6 x 14. 2x 12. 7in.
It will be sold soon for $5000.
Unithas is used to print racing wings with nylon housing and honeycomb structure with carbon fiber reinforced core.
The company expects it to be explored for clothing, custom clothing, tools and fixtures.
Stratasys released 3D printed material news released Polyjet Objet500 connecx3, which is said to be the first multiplecolor/multi-
Take advantage of a form of UV
Curedinkjet technology, it has a unique triple
Spray capability, combining droplets of three base materials to produce almost infinite combinations of rigid, flexible, transparent and opaque colored materials-
All in a print run.
The system allows users to add up to 46 colors to one prototype.
It prints 3d models and parts, color, durability and surface finishuse products.
The material has excellent mechanical properties such as tensile strength, breaking elongation and multiple hardness values that can simulate high
Thermal plastic properties.
It also allows over-molding with durable \"Digital ABS\" materials (ABS-
Like optical polymer)
And introduced A new Shore A value for \"Digital ABS\", ranging from A27 to A95, for consumer goods.
That represents a breakthrough in rapid development, says Wells.
Prototype and modeling capability because it can generate multiple
Color, stronger and more beautiful part of the formand-
Cooperate with a certain degree of functional testing.
Stratsys has improved its \"Digital abs\" to further enhance creep resistance and dimensional stability to meet higher requirements, Fisher said
The 3D system has recently introduced two new types of engineering light.
It\'s big-format (up to 21-in. -long)
ProJet 5000 3D SLA (
The printer launched more than a year ago.
Visijet M5 Black is a solid and flexible PP-
Like the material of the prints
The definition part of complex details.
It can be used to make functional parts for strict testing and high
Its flexibility is easy to manage
The color makes it ideal for electronics, automotive components and stylish black appliances. VisiJet MS-
X is a strong rigid SLA optical polymer with \"mixed\" ABS/PP-
Like a bright property.
Durable white parts with the same resolution as injection molding.
The parts taken out of the material are rigid, which makes it ideal for packaging products such as bottles, as well as household plastics, pipes and valves.
Related articles: Additive Manufacturing: three users in rapid prototyping are weighing (rp+m)
A year ago, custom injection molding mold Thogus in AvonLake, Ohio created an additive manufacturing company equipped with three Stratasys Fortus 900 and two Forms400 FDM production
According to Patrick Gannon, engineering manager, rp m (rpp/usm. com)
Due to the drive to light weight, small size and the high tooling costs required for the competitive process, the use of its finite difference units is primarily focused on aerospace components.
In addition to using all FDM materials from stratasy, the company plans to use the new nylon 12 filament.
The rp m uses Ultem 9085 pei on most functional components, which makes the non-
Aircraft interior applications.
It also uses PC and biocompatible \"PC Iso\" for medical components, such as coil housing installed around the body in MRI and CAT systems.
Due to its focus on aerospace, the rp m is considering adding a SLS 3D production machine, Gannon said. -
SLS allows the production of larger parts in one part, especially large hollow parts with small openings, such as fuel tanks, because it does not require the use of a support structure, as with FDM.
You can approximate a large hollow part with a finite difference, but divide it into two parts.
\"Promoting material development is a major focus of rp m.
The company is working with Stratasys and major aircraft OEMs to obtain the Ultem 9085 strength representation data required by aerospace engineers.
This material has been used for HVAC components such as connectors and pipe covers.
Once the strength representation is complete, they can use this material in other applications, such as certain structural brackets in engine blocks or wheel holes.
In addition, rp m is working with these partners to develop carbon
The fiber-enhanced Ultem peiat will allow it to be used in more robust structural components and tools. Red Dot Corp. , Seattle (rdac. com)
, Is an OEM for large trucks and mobile HVAC systems for agricultural and military vehicles.
Mainly used for the processing of ABS, PC, PC/ABS.
According to toGary Hansen, v. p.
\"The new nylon 12 material is very exciting due to its strength and flexibility. Snap-
Components that are very suitable for our work]]
With nylon and ABS, only once.
We are part of the test.
Stratasys does not have a very good nozzle tip yet, so the resolution is lacking for very small components such as gears.
But I believe it will be a short time. term problem.
\"The function of Red Dot is limited. the differential components include blower wheels, operator control panels and air flow-
Model door for military vehicle driver operation.
They also use PC for lighting.
Pipe lens and touch button for graphics that display symbols or colors.
With the new nylon, Red dot is expected to be able to make smaller parts such as engines
Coolant and watercontrol valves.
Red dot uses Fortus 400 almost 50: 50 as prototype and terminal-use parts.
The company is interested in getting the Fortus900, which allows it to make larger parts, such as shells and pipes, rather than two parts with a shape of 400, Hansen said. Germany-
Headquartered in Roech ling group (U. S.
Office of Mich Novi. ; roechling-plastics. corn)
Small start recently
Mass production of complex industrial components by investing in itshweigh\'s SLS
Performance Plastics Division
In luzen, Germany, a series of finished products and semi-finished products were completed.
From material processing and transportation to finished products in various industries.
General manager Klaus Terry macher said, \"with SLS, we provide an innovative technology for the production of the most complex 3d components that cannot be achieved in CNC machining or injection molding